# Solving Large Stiff Equations

This tutorial is for getting into the extra features for solving large stiff ordinary differential equations in an efficient manner. Solving stiff ordinary differential equations requires specializing the linear solver on properties of the Jacobian in order to cut down on the $\mathcal{O}(n^3)$ linear solve and the $\mathcal{O}(n^2)$ back-solves. Note that these same functions and controls also extend to stiff SDEs, DDEs, DAEs, etc. This tutorial is for large-scale models, such as those derived for semi-discretizations of partial differential equations (PDEs). For example, we will use the stiff Brusselator partial differential equation (BRUSS).

Note

This tutorial is for advanced users to dive into advanced features! DifferentialEquations.jl automates most of this usage, so we recommend users try solve(prob) with the automatic algorithm first!

## Definition of the Brusselator Equation

Note

Feel free to skip this section: it simply defines the example problem.

The Brusselator PDE is defined as follows:

\begin{align} \frac{\partial u}{\partial t} &= 1 + u^2v - 4.4u + \alpha(\frac{\partial^2 u}{\partial x^2} + \frac{\partial^2 u}{\partial y^2}) + f(x, y, t)\\ \frac{\partial v}{\partial t} &= 3.4u - u^2v + \alpha(\frac{\partial^2 v}{\partial x^2} + \frac{\partial^2 v}{\partial y^2}) \end{align}

where

$$$f(x, y, t) = \begin{cases} 5 & \quad \text{if } (x-0.3)^2+(y-0.6)^2 ≤ 0.1^2 \text{ and } t ≥ 1.1 \\ 0 & \quad \text{else} \end{cases}$$$

and the initial conditions are

\begin{align} u(x, y, 0) &= 22\cdot (y(1-y))^{3/2} \\ v(x, y, 0) &= 27\cdot (x(1-x))^{3/2} \end{align}

with the periodic boundary condition

\begin{align} u(x+1,y,t) &= u(x,y,t) \\ u(x,y+1,t) &= u(x,y,t) \end{align}

on a timespan of $t \in [0,11.5]$.

To solve this PDE, we will discretize it into a system of ODEs with the finite difference method. We discretize u and v into arrays of the values at each time point: u[i,j] = u(i*dx,j*dy) for some choice of dx/dy, and same for v. Then our ODE is defined with U[i,j,k] = [u v]. The second derivative operator, the Laplacian, discretizes to become a tridiagonal matrix with [1 -2 1] and a 1 in the top right and bottom left corners. The nonlinear functions are then applied at each point in space (they are broadcast). Use dx=dy=1/32.

The resulting ODEProblem definition is:

using DifferentialEquations, LinearAlgebra, SparseArrays

const N = 32
const xyd_brusselator = range(0,stop=1,length=N)
brusselator_f(x, y, t) = (((x-0.3)^2 + (y-0.6)^2) <= 0.1^2) * (t >= 1.1) * 5.
limit(a, N) = a == N+1 ? 1 : a == 0 ? N : a
function brusselator_2d_loop(du, u, p, t)
A, B, alpha, dx = p
alpha = alpha/dx^2
@inbounds for I in CartesianIndices((N, N))
i, j = Tuple(I)
x, y = xyd_brusselator[I], xyd_brusselator[I]
ip1, im1, jp1, jm1 = limit(i+1, N), limit(i-1, N), limit(j+1, N), limit(j-1, N)
du[i,j,1] = alpha*(u[im1,j,1] + u[ip1,j,1] + u[i,jp1,1] + u[i,jm1,1] - 4u[i,j,1]) +
B + u[i,j,1]^2*u[i,j,2] - (A + 1)*u[i,j,1] + brusselator_f(x, y, t)
du[i,j,2] = alpha*(u[im1,j,2] + u[ip1,j,2] + u[i,jp1,2] + u[i,jm1,2] - 4u[i,j,2]) +
A*u[i,j,1] - u[i,j,1]^2*u[i,j,2]
end
end
p = (3.4, 1., 10., step(xyd_brusselator))

function init_brusselator_2d(xyd)
N = length(xyd)
u = zeros(N, N, 2)
for I in CartesianIndices((N, N))
x = xyd[I]
y = xyd[I]
u[I,1] = 22*(y*(1-y))^(3/2)
u[I,2] = 27*(x*(1-x))^(3/2)
end
u
end
u0 = init_brusselator_2d(xyd_brusselator)
prob_ode_brusselator_2d = ODEProblem(brusselator_2d_loop,u0,(0.,11.5),p)

## Choosing Jacobian Types

When one is using an implicit or semi-implicit differential equation solver, the Jacobian must be built at many iterations and this can be one of the most expensive steps. There are two pieces that must be optimized in order to reach maximal efficiency when solving stiff equations: the sparsity pattern and the construction of the Jacobian. The construction is filling the matrix J with values, while the sparsity pattern is what J to use.

The sparsity pattern is given by a prototype matrix, the jac_prototype, which will be copied to be used as J. The default is for J to be a Matrix, i.e. a dense matrix. However, if you know the sparsity of your problem, then you can pass a different matrix type. For example, a SparseMatrixCSC will give a sparse matrix. Other sparse matrix types include:

DifferentialEquations.jl will internally use this matrix type, making the factorizations faster by using the specialized forms.

## Declaring a Sparse Jacobian with Automatic Sparsity Detection

Jacobian sparsity is declared by the jac_prototype argument in the ODEFunction. Note that you should only do this if the sparsity is high, for example, 0.1% of the matrix is non-zeros, otherwise the overhead of sparse matrices can be higher than the gains from sparse differentiation!

One of the useful companion tools for DifferentialEquations.jl is Symbolics.jl. This allows for automatic declaration of Jacobian sparsity types. To see this in action, we can give an example du and u and call jacobian_sparsity on our function with the example arguments and it will kick out a sparse matrix with our pattern, that we can turn into our jac_prototype.

using Symbolics
du0 = copy(u0)
jac_sparsity = Symbolics.jacobian_sparsity((du,u)->brusselator_2d_loop(du,u,p,0.0),du0,u0)

2048×2048 SparseArrays.SparseMatrixCSC{Bool, Int64} with 12288 stored entries:
⠻⣦⡀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠈⠳⣄⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠈⠻⣦⡀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠈⠳⣄⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠈⠻⣦⡀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠈⠳⣄⠀⠀
⡀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠈⠻⣦⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠈⠳⣄
⠙⢦⡀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠻⣦⡀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠈
⠀⠀⠙⢦⡀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠈⠻⣦⡀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠙⢦⡀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠈⠻⣦⡀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠙⢦⡀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠈⠻⣦

Notice Julia gives a nice print out of the sparsity pattern. That's neat, and would be tedious to build by hand! Now we just pass it to the ODEFunction like as before:

f = ODEFunction(brusselator_2d_loop;jac_prototype=float.(jac_sparsity))

Build the ODEProblem:

prob_ode_brusselator_2d_sparse = ODEProblem(f,u0,(0.,11.5),p)

Now let's see how the version with sparsity compares to the version without:

using BenchmarkTools # for @btime
@btime solve(prob_ode_brusselator_2d,TRBDF2(),save_everystep=false) # 2.771 s (5452 allocations: 65.73 MiB)
@btime solve(prob_ode_brusselator_2d_sparse,TRBDF2(),save_everystep=false) # 680.612 ms (37905 allocations: 359.34 MiB)
@btime solve(prob_ode_brusselator_2d_sparse,KenCarp47(linsolve=KLUFactorization()),save_everystep=false) # 342.017 ms (65150 allocations: 158.99 MiB)

Note that depending on the properties of the sparsity pattern, one may want to try alternative linear solvers such as TRBDF2(linsolve = KLUFactorization()) or TRBDF2(linsolve = UMFPACKFactorization()).

## Using Jacobian-Free Newton-Krylov

A completely different way to optimize the linear solvers for large sparse matrices is to use a Krylov subpsace method. This requires choosing a linear solver for changing to a Krylov method. To swap the linear solver out, we use the linsolve command and choose the GMRES linear solver.

@btime solve(prob_ode_brusselator_2d,KenCarp47(linsolve=KrylovJL_GMRES()),save_everystep=false)
# 707.439 ms (173868 allocations: 31.07 MiB)

Notice that this acceleration does not require the definition of a sparsity pattern and can thus be an easier way to scale for large problems. For more information on linear solver choices, see the linear solver documentation. linsolve choices are any valid LinearSolve.jl solver.

Note

Switching to a Krylov linear solver will automatically change the ODE solver into Jacobian-free mode, dramatically reducing the memory required. This can be overridden by adding concrete_jac=true to the algorithm.

Any LinearSolve.jl-compatible preconditioner can be used as a preconditioner in the linear solver interface. To define preconditioners, one must define a precs function in compatible stiff ODE solvers which returns the left and right preconditioners, matrices which approximate the inverse of W = I - gamma*J used in the solution of the ODE. An example of this with using IncompleteLU.jl is as follows:

using IncompleteLU
function incompletelu(W,du,u,p,t,newW,Plprev,Prprev,solverdata)
if newW === nothing || newW
Pl = ilu(convert(AbstractMatrix,W), τ = 50.0)
else
Pl = Plprev
end
Pl,nothing
end

# Required due to a bug in Krylov.jl: https://github.com/JuliaSmoothOptimizers/Krylov.jl/pull/477
Base.eltype(::IncompleteLU.ILUFactorization{Tv,Ti}) where {Tv,Ti} = Tv

@time solve(prob_ode_brusselator_2d_sparse,KenCarp47(linsolve=KrylovJL_GMRES(),precs=incompletelu,concrete_jac=true),save_everystep=false);
# 174.386 ms (61756 allocations: 61.38 MiB)

Notice a few things about this preconditioner. This preconditioner uses the sparse Jacobian, and thus we set concrete_jac=true to tell the algorithm to generate the Jacobian (otherwise, a Jacobian-free algorithm is used with GMRES by default). Then newW = true whenever a new W matrix is computed, and newW=nothing during the startup phase of the solver. Thus we do a check newW === nothing || newW and when true, it's only at these points when we we update the preconditioner, otherwise we just pass on the previous version. We use convert(AbstractMatrix,W) to get the concrete W matrix (matching jac_prototype, thus SpraseMatrixCSC) which we can use in the preconditioner's definition. Then we use IncompleteLU.ilu on that sparse matrix to generate the preconditioner. We return Pl,nothing to say that our preconditioner is a left preconditioner, and that there is no right preconditioning.

This method thus uses both the Krylov solver and the sparse Jacobian. Not only that, it is faster than both implementations! IncompleteLU is fussy in that it requires a well-tuned τ parameter. Another option is to use AlgebraicMultigrid.jl which is more automatic. The setup is very similar to before:

using AlgebraicMultigrid
function algebraicmultigrid(W,du,u,p,t,newW,Plprev,Prprev,solverdata)
if newW === nothing || newW
Pl = aspreconditioner(ruge_stuben(convert(AbstractMatrix,W)))
else
Pl = Plprev
end
Pl,nothing
end

# Required due to a bug in Krylov.jl: https://github.com/JuliaSmoothOptimizers/Krylov.jl/pull/477
Base.eltype(::AlgebraicMultigrid.Preconditioner) = Float64

@btime solve(prob_ode_brusselator_2d_sparse,KenCarp47(linsolve=KrylovJL_GMRES(),precs=algebraicmultigrid,concrete_jac=true),save_everystep=false);
# 372.528 ms (61179 allocations: 160.82 MiB)

or with a Jacobi smoother:

function algebraicmultigrid2(W,du,u,p,t,newW,Plprev,Prprev,solverdata)
if newW === nothing || newW
A = convert(AbstractMatrix,W)
Pl = AlgebraicMultigrid.aspreconditioner(AlgebraicMultigrid.ruge_stuben(A, presmoother = AlgebraicMultigrid.Jacobi(rand(size(A,1))), postsmoother = AlgebraicMultigrid.Jacobi(rand(size(A,1)))))
else
Pl = Plprev
end
Pl,nothing
end

@btime solve(prob_ode_brusselator_2d_sparse,KenCarp47(linsolve=KrylovJL_GMRES(),precs=algebraicmultigrid2,concrete_jac=true),save_everystep=false);
# 293.476 ms (65714 allocations: 170.23 MiB)

For more information on the preconditioner interface, see the linear solver documentation.

## Sundials-Specific Handling

While much of the setup makes the transition to using Sundials automatic, there are some differences between the pure Julia implementations and the Sundials implementations which must be taken note of. These are all detailed in the Sundials solver documentation, but here we will highlight the main details which one should make note of.

Defining a sparse matrix and a Jacobian for Sundials works just like any other package. The core difference is in the choice of the linear solver. With Sundials, the linear solver choice is done with a Symbol in the linear_solver from a preset list. Particular choices of note are :Band for a banded matrix and :GMRES for using GMRES. If you are using Sundials, :GMRES will not require defining the JacVecOperator, and instead will always make use of a Jacobian-Free Newton Krylov (with numerical differentiation). Thus on this problem we could do:

using Sundials
@btime solve(prob_ode_brusselator_2d,CVODE_BDF(),save_everystep=false) # 13.280 s (51457 allocations: 2.43 MiB)
# Simplest speedup: use :LapackDense
@btime solve(prob_ode_brusselator_2d,CVODE_BDF(linear_solver=:LapackDense),save_everystep=false) # 2.024 s (51457 allocations: 2.43 MiB)
# GMRES Version: Doesn't require any extra stuff!
@btime solve(prob_ode_brusselator_2d,CVODE_BDF(linear_solver=:GMRES),save_everystep=false) # 213.800 ms (58353 allocations: 2.64 MiB)

Notice that using sparse matrices with Sundials requires an analytical Jacobian function. We will use ModelingToolkit.jl's modelingtoolkitize to automatically generate this:

using ModelingToolkit
prob_ode_brusselator_2d_mtk = ODEProblem(modelingtoolkitize(prob_ode_brusselator_2d_sparse),[],(0.0,11.5),jac=true,sparse=true);
@btime solve(prob_ode_brusselator_2d_mtk,CVODE_BDF(linear_solver=:KLU),save_everystep=false) # 493.908 ms (1358 allocations: 5.79 MiB)

### Using Preconditioners with Sundials

Details for setting up a preconditioner with Sundials can be found at the Sundials solver page. Sundials algorithms are very different from the standard Julia-based algorithms in that they require the user does all handling of the Jacobian matrix. To do this, you must define a psetup function that sets up the preconditioner and then a prec function that is the action of the preconditioner on a vector. For the psetup function, we need to first compute the W = I - gamma*J matrix before computing the preconditioner on it. For the ILU example above, this is done for Sundials like:

using LinearAlgebra
u0 = prob_ode_brusselator_2d_mtk.u0
p  = prob_ode_brusselator_2d_mtk.p
const jaccache = prob_ode_brusselator_2d_mtk.f.jac(u0,p,0.0)
const W = I - 1.0*jaccache

prectmp = ilu(W, τ = 50.0)
const preccache = Ref(prectmp)

function psetupilu(p, t, u, du, jok, jcurPtr, gamma)
if jok
prob_ode_brusselator_2d_mtk.f.jac(jaccache,u,p,t)
jcurPtr[] = true

# W = I - gamma*J
@. W = -gamma*jaccache
idxs = diagind(W)
@. @view(W[idxs]) = @view(W[idxs]) + 1

# Build preconditioner on W
preccache[] = ilu(W, τ = 5.0)
end
end

Then the preconditioner action is to simply use the ldiv! of the generated preconditioner:

function precilu(z,r,p,t,y,fy,gamma,delta,lr)
ldiv!(z,preccache[],r)
end

We then simply pass these functions to the Sundials solver with a choice of prec_side=1 to indicate that it is a left-preconditioner:

@btime solve(prob_ode_brusselator_2d_sparse,CVODE_BDF(linear_solver=:GMRES,prec=precilu,psetup=psetupilu,prec_side=1),save_everystep=false);
# 87.176 ms (17717 allocations: 77.08 MiB)

And similarly for algebraic multigrid:

prectmp2 = aspreconditioner(ruge_stuben(W, presmoother = AlgebraicMultigrid.Jacobi(rand(size(W,1))), postsmoother = AlgebraicMultigrid.Jacobi(rand(size(W,1)))))
const preccache2 = Ref(prectmp2)
function psetupamg(p, t, u, du, jok, jcurPtr, gamma)
if jok
prob_ode_brusselator_2d_mtk.f.jac(jaccache,u,p,t)
jcurPtr[] = true

# W = I - gamma*J
@. W = -gamma*jaccache
idxs = diagind(W)
@. @view(W[idxs]) = @view(W[idxs]) + 1

# Build preconditioner on W
preccache2[] = aspreconditioner(ruge_stuben(W, presmoother = AlgebraicMultigrid.Jacobi(rand(size(W,1))), postsmoother = AlgebraicMultigrid.Jacobi(rand(size(W,1)))))
end
end

function precamg(z,r,p,t,y,fy,gamma,delta,lr)
ldiv!(z,preccache2[],r)
end

@btime solve(prob_ode_brusselator_2d_sparse,CVODE_BDF(linear_solver=:GMRES,prec=precamg,psetup=psetupamg,prec_side=1),save_everystep=false);
# 136.431 ms (30682 allocations: 275.68 MiB)