# Parameter Estimation for Stochastic Differential Equations and Ensembles

We can use any DEProblem, which not only includes DAEProblem and DDEProblems, but also stochastic problems. In this case, let's use the generalized maximum likelihood to fit the parameters of an SDE's ensemble evaluation.

Let's use the same Lotka-Volterra equation as before, but this time add noise:

pf_func = function (du,u,p,t)
du[1] = p[1] * u[1] - p[2] * u[1]*u[2]
du[2] = -3 * u[2] + u[1]*u[2]
end

u0 = [1.0;1.0]
tspan = (0.0,10.0)
p = [1.5,1.0]
pg_func = function (du,u,p,t)
du[1] = 1e-6u[1]
du[2] = 1e-6u[2]
end
prob = SDEProblem(pf_func,pg_func,u0,tspan,p)
sol = solve(prob,SRIW1())

Now lets generate a dataset from 10,000 solutions of the SDE

using RecursiveArrayTools # for VectorOfArray
t = collect(range(0, stop=10, length=200))
function generate_data(t)
sol = solve(prob,SRIW1())
randomized = VectorOfArray([(sol(t[i]) + .01randn(2)) for i in 1:length(t)])
data = convert(Array,randomized)
end
aggregate_data = convert(Array,VectorOfArray([generate_data(t) for i in 1:10000]))

Now let's estimate the parameters. Instead of using single runs from the SDE, we will use a EnsembleProblem. This means that it will solve the SDE N times to come up with an approximate probability distribution at each time point and use that in the likelihood estimate.

monte_prob = EnsembleProblem(prob)

We use Optim.jl for optimization below

obj = build_loss_objective(monte_prob,SOSRI(),L2Loss(t,aggregate_data),
maxiters=10000,verbose=false,num_monte = 1000,
result = Optim.optimize(obj, [1.0,0.5], Optim.BFGS())

Parameter Estimation in case of SDE's with a regular L2Loss can have poor accuracy due to only fitting against the mean properties as mentioned in First Differencing.

Results of Optimization Algorithm
* Algorithm: BFGS
* Starting Point: [1.0,0.5]
* Minimizer: [6.070728870478734,5.113357737345448]
* Minimum: 1.700440e+03
* Iterations: 14
* Convergence: false
* |x - x'| ≤ 0.0e+00: false
|x - x'| = 1.00e-03
* |f(x) - f(x')| ≤ 0.0e+00 |f(x)|: false
|f(x) - f(x')| = 1.81e-07 |f(x)|
* |g(x)| ≤ 1.0e-08: false
|g(x)| = 2.34e+00
* Stopped by an increasing objective: true
* Reached Maximum Number of Iterations: false
* Objective Calls: 61

Instead when we use L2Loss with first differencing enabled we get much more accurate estimates.

obj = build_loss_objective(monte_prob,SRIW1(),L2Loss(t,data,differ_weight=1.0,data_weight=0.5),maxiters=1000,
verbose=false,verbose_opt=false,verbose_steps=1,num_monte=50)
result = Optim.optimize(obj, [1.0,0.5], Optim.BFGS())
Results of Optimization Algorithm
* Algorithm: BFGS
* Starting Point: [1.0,0.5]
* Minimizer: [1.5010687426045128,1.0023453619050238]
* Minimum: 1.166650e-01
* Iterations: 16
* Convergence: false
* |x - x'| ≤ 0.0e+00: false
|x - x'| = 6.84e-09
* |f(x) - f(x')| ≤ 0.0e+00 |f(x)|: false
|f(x) - f(x')| = 5.85e-06 |f(x)|
* |g(x)| ≤ 1.0e-08: false
|g(x)| = 1.81e-01
* Stopped by an increasing objective: true
* Reached Maximum Number of Iterations: false
* Objective Calls: 118