Mackey and Glass Work-Precision Diagrams

Mackey and Glass

We study algorithms for solving constant delay differential equations with a test problem from W.H. Enright and H. Hayashi, "The evaluation of numerical software for delay differential equations", 1997. It is a model of blood production that was published by M. C. Mackey and L. Glass in "Oscillation and chaos in physiological control systems", 1977, and is given by

\[\begin{equation} y'(t) = \frac{0.2y(t-14)}{1 + y(t-14)^{10}} - 0.1y(t) \end{equation}\]

using DelayDiffEq, DiffEqDevTools, DiffEqProblemLibrary, Plots
using DiffEqProblemLibrary.DDEProblemLibrary: importddeproblems; importddeproblems()
import DiffEqProblemLibrary.DDEProblemLibrary: prob_dde_mackey
gr()

sol = solve(prob_dde_mackey, MethodOfSteps(Vern9(); fpsolve = NLFunctional(; max_iter = 1000)); reltol=1e-14, abstol=1e-14)
test_sol = TestSolution(sol)
plot(sol)

Low order RK methods

High tolerances

First we test final error estimates of continuous RK methods of low order at high tolerances. OwrenZen4, OwrenZen5, and RK4 yield the best error estimates.

abstols = 1.0 ./ 10.0 .^ (4:7)
reltols = 1.0 ./ 10.0 .^ (1:4)

setups = [Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(BS3())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(Tsit5())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(RK4())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(DP5())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(OwrenZen3())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(OwrenZen4())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(OwrenZen5()))]
names = ["BS3", "Tsit5", "RK4", "DP5", "OwrenZen3", "OwrenZen4", "OwrenZen5"]
wp = WorkPrecisionSet(prob_dde_mackey,abstols,reltols,setups;names=names,
                      appxsol=test_sol,maxiters=Int(1e5),error_estimate=:final)
plot(wp)

Next we test average interpolation errors:

abstols = 1.0 ./ 10.0 .^ (4:7)
reltols = 1.0 ./ 10.0 .^ (1:4)

setups = [Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(BS3())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(Tsit5())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(RK4())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(DP5())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(OwrenZen3())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(OwrenZen4())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(OwrenZen5()))]
names = ["BS3", "Tsit5", "RK4", "DP5", "OwrenZen3", "OwrenZen4", "OwrenZen5"]
wp = WorkPrecisionSet(prob_dde_mackey,abstols,reltols,setups;names=names,
                      appxsol=test_sol,maxiters=Int(1e5),error_estimate=:L2)
plot(wp)

As before, OwrenZen4 and OwrenZen5 perform well over the whole range of investigated tolerances.

Low tolerances

We repeat our tests with low tolerances.

abstols = 1.0 ./ 10.0 .^ (8:11)
reltols = 1.0 ./ 10.0 .^ (5:8)

setups = [Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(BS3())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(Tsit5())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(RK4())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(DP5())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(OwrenZen3())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(OwrenZen4())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(OwrenZen5()))]
names = ["BS3", "Tsit5", "RK4", "DP5", "OwrenZen3", "OwrenZen4", "OwrenZen5"]
wp = WorkPrecisionSet(prob_dde_mackey,abstols,reltols,setups;names=names,
                      appxsol=test_sol,maxiters=Int(1e5),error_estimate=:final)
plot(wp)

And once again we also test the interpolation errors:

abstols = 1.0 ./ 10.0 .^ (8:11)
reltols = 1.0 ./ 10.0 .^ (5:8)

setups = [Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(BS3())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(Tsit5())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(RK4())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(DP5())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(OwrenZen3())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(OwrenZen4())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(OwrenZen5()))]
names = ["BS3", "Tsit5", "RK4", "DP5", "OwrenZen3", "OwrenZen4", "OwrenZen5"]
wp = WorkPrecisionSet(prob_dde_mackey,abstols,reltols,setups;names=names,
                      appxsol=test_sol,maxiters=Int(1e5),error_estimate=:L2)
plot(wp)

Apparently Tsit5 and DP5 perform quite well at low tolerances, but only OwrenZen5, OwrenZen4 and RK4 achieve interpolation errors of around 1e-9.

Lazy interpolants

High tolerances

We repeat our tests with the Verner methods which, in contrast to the methods above, use lazy interpolants. As reference we include OwrenZen4.

abstols = 1.0 ./ 10.0 .^ (4:7)
reltols = 1.0 ./ 10.0 .^ (1:4)

setups = [Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(Vern6())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(Vern7())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(Vern8())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(Vern9())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(OwrenZen4()))]
names = ["Vern6", "Vern7", "Vern8", "Vern9", "OwrenZen4"]
wp = WorkPrecisionSet(prob_dde_mackey,abstols,reltols,setups;names=names,
                      appxsol=test_sol,maxiters=Int(1e5),error_estimate=:final)
plot(wp)

And we obtain the following interpolation errors:

abstols = 1.0 ./ 10.0 .^ (4:7)
reltols = 1.0 ./ 10.0 .^ (1:4)

setups = [Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(Vern6())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(Vern7())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(Vern8())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(Vern9())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(OwrenZen4()))]
names = ["Vern6", "Vern7", "Vern8", "Vern9", "OwrenZen4"]
wp = WorkPrecisionSet(prob_dde_mackey,abstols,reltols,setups;names=names,
                      appxsol=test_sol,maxiters=Int(1e5),error_estimate=:L2)
plot(wp)

Vern6, Vern7, and Vern9 are outperformed by OwrenZen4.

Low tolerances

Again, we repeat our tests at low tolerances.

abstols = 1.0 ./ 10.0 .^ (8:11)
reltols = 1.0 ./ 10.0 .^ (5:8)

setups = [Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(Vern6())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(Vern7())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(Vern8())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(Vern9())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(OwrenZen4()))]
names = ["Vern6", "Vern7", "Vern8", "Vern9", "OwrenZen4"]
wp = WorkPrecisionSet(prob_dde_mackey,abstols,reltols,setups;names=names,
                      appxsol=test_sol,maxiters=Int(1e5),error_estimate=:final)
plot(wp)

abstols = 1.0 ./ 10.0 .^ (8:11)
reltols = 1.0 ./ 10.0 .^ (5:8)

setups = [Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(Vern6())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(Vern7())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(Vern8())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(Vern9())),
          Dict(:alg=>MethodOfSteps(OwrenZen4()))]
names = ["Vern6", "Vern7", "Vern8", "Vern9", "OwrenZen4"]
wp = WorkPrecisionSet(prob_dde_mackey,abstols,reltols,setups;names=names,
                      appxsol=test_sol,maxiters=Int(1e5),error_estimate=:L2)
plot(wp)

Vern6, Vern7, and Vern9 show similar results at low tolerances, and perform even better than OwrenZen4.

Appendix

These benchmarks are a part of the SciMLBenchmarks.jl repository, found at: https://github.com/SciML/SciMLBenchmarks.jl. For more information on high-performance scientific machine learning, check out the SciML Open Source Software Organization https://sciml.ai.

To locally run this benchmark, do the following commands:

using SciMLBenchmarks
SciMLBenchmarks.weave_file("benchmarks/NonStiffDDE","Mackey_Glass_wpd.jmd")

Computer Information:

Julia Version 1.7.3
Commit 742b9abb4d (2022-05-06 12:58 UTC)
Platform Info:
  OS: Linux (x86_64-pc-linux-gnu)
  CPU: AMD EPYC 7502 32-Core Processor
  WORD_SIZE: 64
  LIBM: libopenlibm
  LLVM: libLLVM-12.0.1 (ORCJIT, znver2)
Environment:
  BUILDKITE_PLUGIN_JULIA_CACHE_DIR = /cache/julia-buildkite-plugin
  JULIA_DEPOT_PATH = /cache/julia-buildkite-plugin/depots/5b300254-1738-4989-ae0a-f4d2d937f953

Package Information:

      Status `/cache/build/exclusive-amdci3-0/julialang/scimlbenchmarks-dot-jl/benchmarks/NonStiffDDE/Project.toml`
  [bcd4f6db] DelayDiffEq v5.37.0
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  [a077e3f3] DiffEqProblemLibrary v4.17.0
  [91a5bcdd] Plots v1.31.4
  [31c91b34] SciMLBenchmarks v0.1.0

And the full manifest:

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  [02c8fc9c] XML2_jll v2.9.14+0
  [aed1982a] XSLT_jll v1.1.34+0
  [4f6342f7] Xorg_libX11_jll v1.6.9+4
  [0c0b7dd1] Xorg_libXau_jll v1.0.9+4
  [935fb764] Xorg_libXcursor_jll v1.2.0+4
  [a3789734] Xorg_libXdmcp_jll v1.1.3+4
  [1082639a] Xorg_libXext_jll v1.3.4+4
  [d091e8ba] Xorg_libXfixes_jll v5.0.3+4
  [a51aa0fd] Xorg_libXi_jll v1.7.10+4
  [d1454406] Xorg_libXinerama_jll v1.1.4+4
  [ec84b674] Xorg_libXrandr_jll v1.5.2+4
  [ea2f1a96] Xorg_libXrender_jll v0.9.10+4
  [14d82f49] Xorg_libpthread_stubs_jll v0.1.0+3
  [c7cfdc94] Xorg_libxcb_jll v1.13.0+3
  [cc61e674] Xorg_libxkbfile_jll v1.1.0+4
  [12413925] Xorg_xcb_util_image_jll v0.4.0+1
  [2def613f] Xorg_xcb_util_jll v0.4.0+1
  [975044d2] Xorg_xcb_util_keysyms_jll v0.4.0+1
  [0d47668e] Xorg_xcb_util_renderutil_jll v0.3.9+1
  [c22f9ab0] Xorg_xcb_util_wm_jll v0.4.1+1
  [35661453] Xorg_xkbcomp_jll v1.4.2+4
  [33bec58e] Xorg_xkeyboard_config_jll v2.27.0+4
  [c5fb5394] Xorg_xtrans_jll v1.4.0+3
  [8f1865be] ZeroMQ_jll v4.3.4+0
  [3161d3a3] Zstd_jll v1.5.2+0
  [a4ae2306] libaom_jll v3.4.0+0
  [0ac62f75] libass_jll v0.15.1+0
  [f638f0a6] libfdk_aac_jll v2.0.2+0
  [b53b4c65] libpng_jll v1.6.38+0
  [a9144af2] libsodium_jll v1.0.20+0
  [f27f6e37] libvorbis_jll v1.3.7+1
  [1270edf5] x264_jll v2021.5.5+0
  [dfaa095f] x265_jll v3.5.0+0
  [d8fb68d0] xkbcommon_jll v0.9.1+5
  [0dad84c5] ArgTools v1.1.1
  [56f22d72] Artifacts
  [2a0f44e3] Base64
  [ade2ca70] Dates
  [8bb1440f] DelimitedFiles
  [8ba89e20] Distributed
  [f43a241f] Downloads v1.6.0
  [7b1f6079] FileWatching
  [9fa8497b] Future
  [b77e0a4c] InteractiveUtils
  [b27032c2] LibCURL v0.6.3
  [76f85450] LibGit2
  [8f399da3] Libdl
  [37e2e46d] LinearAlgebra
  [56ddb016] Logging
  [d6f4376e] Markdown
  [a63ad114] Mmap
  [ca575930] NetworkOptions v1.2.0
  [44cfe95a] Pkg v1.8.0
  [de0858da] Printf
  [3fa0cd96] REPL
  [9a3f8284] Random
  [ea8e919c] SHA v0.7.0
  [9e88b42a] Serialization
  [1a1011a3] SharedArrays
  [6462fe0b] Sockets
  [2f01184e] SparseArrays
  [10745b16] Statistics
  [4607b0f0] SuiteSparse
  [fa267f1f] TOML v1.0.0
  [a4e569a6] Tar v1.10.0
  [8dfed614] Test
  [cf7118a7] UUIDs
  [4ec0a83e] Unicode
  [e66e0078] CompilerSupportLibraries_jll v0.5.2+0
  [deac9b47] LibCURL_jll v7.81.0+0
  [29816b5a] LibSSH2_jll v1.10.2+0
  [c8ffd9c3] MbedTLS_jll v2.28.0+0
  [14a3606d] MozillaCACerts_jll v2022.2.1
  [4536629a] OpenBLAS_jll v0.3.20+0
  [05823500] OpenLibm_jll v0.8.1+0
  [efcefdf7] PCRE2_jll v10.40.0+0
  [bea87d4a] SuiteSparse_jll v5.10.1+0
  [83775a58] Zlib_jll v1.2.12+3
  [8e850b90] libblastrampoline_jll v5.1.0+0
  [8e850ede] nghttp2_jll v1.41.0+1
  [3f19e933] p7zip_jll v17.4.0+0