# Handling Exogenous Input Signals

The key to using exogeneous input signals is the same as in the rest of the SciML universe: just use the function in the definition of the differential equation. For example, if it's a standard differential equation, you can use the form

I(t) = t^2

function f(du,u,p,t)
du = I(t)
du = u
end

so that I(t) is an exogenous input signal into f. Another form that could be useful is a closure. For example:

function f(du,u,p,t,I)
du = I(t)
du = u
end

_f(du,u,p,t) = f(du,u,p,t,x -> x^2)

which encloses an extra argument into f so that _f is now the interface-compliant differential equation definition.

Note that you can also learn what the exogenous equation is from data. For an example on how to do this, you can use the Optimal Control Example which shows how to parameterize a u(t) by a universal function and learn that from data.

## Example of a Neural ODE with Exogenous Input

In the following example, a discrete exogenous input signal ex is defined and used as an input into the neural network of a neural ODE system.

using DifferentialEquations, Lux, DiffEqFlux, Optimization, OptimizationPolyalgorithms, OptimizationFlux, Plots, Random

rng = Random.default_rng()
tspan = (0.1f0, Float32(10.0))
tsteps = range(tspan, tspan, length = 100)
t_vec = collect(tsteps)
ex = vec(ones(Float32,length(tsteps), 1))
f(x) = (atan(8.0 * x - 4.0) + atan(4.0)) / (2.0 * atan(4.0))

function hammerstein_system(u)
y= zeros(size(u))
for k in 2:length(u)
y[k] = 0.2 * f(u[k-1]) + 0.8 * y[k-1]
end
return y
end

y = Float32.(hammerstein_system(ex))
plot(collect(tsteps), y, ticks=:native)

nn_model = Lux.Chain(Lux.Dense(2,8, tanh), Lux.Dense(8, 1))
p_model,st = Lux.setup(rng, nn_model)

u0 = Float32.([0.0])

function dudt(u, p, t)
global st
#input_val = u_vals[Int(round(t*10)+1)]
out,st = nn_model(vcat(u, ex[Int(round(10*0.1))]), p, st)
return out
end

prob = ODEProblem(dudt,u0,tspan,nothing)

function predict_neuralode(p)
_prob = remake(prob,p=p)
Array(solve(_prob, Tsit5(), saveat=tsteps, abstol = 1e-8, reltol = 1e-6))
end

function loss(p)
sol = predict_neuralode(p)
N = length(sol)
return sum(abs2.(y[1:N] .- sol'))/N
end

scatter!(tsteps,y[1:N]) 